Wednesday, June 10, 2020

siRNA Technology Targeting P53 as a Cancer Drug Therapy - 275 Words

siRNA Technology Targeting P53 as a Cancer Drug Therapy (Research Paper Sample) Content: siRNA Technology Targeting P53 as a Cancer Drug TherapyNameInstitutionsiRNA Technology Targeting P53 as a Cancer Drug TherapyIntroductionsiRNA are conseptualized as tiny pieces of double-stranded (ds) Ribonucleic acid (RNA), they are taken to be approximately 21 nucleotides in length, with each having two nucleotides hanging at each end. Scientific researches indicate that RNA interferes with the development and transation of proteins in the body through binding and supporting of the breakdown of the messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in a systematic way (Parent, 2012). mRNA or messenger Ribonucleic acid is the bridge linking a protein and a gene. Thus, they hinder the production of given proteins depending on the nucleotide arrangements and their matching mRNA. The entire process is refered to as siRNA or RNA interference (RNAi) which is also known as siRNA breakdown. RNA interference (RNAi) or pathway refers to the cellural trail followed by gene silencing in a syste matic way at messenger Ribonucleic acid level.siRNA understanding has evolved significantly over time. However, it can be traced back to Napoli and Jorgensen who first confirmed RNAi kind of occurrence in 1990. It happened in their study which was aimed at determining if the chalcone synthase enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis was responsible for limiting the rate of enzyme in anthocyanin biosynthesis. A similar phenomenon was reported by Romano and Mancino in 1992 during their study of Neurospora crassa. The first documentation of RNA silencing was done by Guo and Kemphues, who after a critical study on animals noted that if the introduction of antisense or sense RNA to the mRNA led to the breakdown of the par-1 message in the Caenorhabditis elegans. The contributions of Guo and Kemphues has been the foundation of the current understanding of the siRNA (Guo, 2015).An individual siRNA thread consists of five phosphate group and three hydroxyl (OH) group. The Phosphate and the hydr oxyl groups are derived from dsRNA. When the siRNA thread enters a cell it cleaves due to the presence of Dicer (RNase III enzyme). The role of a Dicer is to cleave the dsRNA into tiny pieces which are refered to as siRNAs and miRNAs (microRNAs). In addition, the Dicer aids in loading the pieces into a huge multiprotein complex commonly refered to as RISC. The siRNA are then assimilated into various protein subunits complex which is referred to as RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). The RISC is responsible for seeking the suitable target to slow down. Once it identifies the suitable complementary, mRNA trigers RNase (Ribonuclease) and cleaves the Ribonucleic acid into tiny fragments thus, regulating the gene. Researchers confirm that antisense threads are responsible for directing the breakdown of any complementary thread of mRNA through utilization of exonuclease and endonuclease enzymes. Endonuclease enzymes slash down the DNA molecule. The enzymes detect the unique order of the nucleotides in the DNA thread in both directions and cut them simultaneously at the same location (Lane Lain, 2010).siRNA has been adopted for use in the cancer treatment because of it effectiveness. The utilization of the RNA interference cancer therapy has been featured by success in silencing the severe stages, and low cost when compared to other alternative methods of cancer therapy. Similarly, RNA interference is also known to have a particular target as opposed to chemotherapy. Other significant advantages associated with RNAi in treating of cancer include, is its ability to target various genes of different cellular trails which are responsible for the tumor progression. In addition, RNAi technology enables the pharmacist to develop appropriate drugs to the particular patient. The availability of personalized drugs is always effective in preventing tumor growth (Torchilin, 2013).Cell signaling technology has allowed the RNA to suppress the p53 manifestation. The Silencing, in this case, is done by use of dsRNA molecules in the cell. However...